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Bacteria are the simplest living things that exist on our planet and were the first form of life existed. Persisted throughout history and today continue to be the most abundant life. Although there are many types of bacteria, all share certain basic characteristics and today we will define some of the key.
Generally, all bacteria are prokaryotic unicellular organisms, that means are formed by a single cell and that it has no core. Usually measured on average a micrometer, although really giant bacteria have been found, they came to measuring about a millimeter.
Bacteria can have ball format (coconuts); Comma (vibrões); Spiral (spirillae) and also the rod (bacillus), among others. The latter are the most common.
One way to classify bacteria is according to their way of nutrition. From this, you can define the bacterium is autótrofa (produces its own food) and heterotrophic (own food produces are not).
Many of autotrophic bacteria produce organic matter thanks to the energy of sunlight, which means they are autotrophic photosynthetic equal to those plants. Other obtains the necessary energy to survive thanks to chemical reactions involving inorganic substances obtained from the environment, these are called autotrophic quimiossintetizantes.
Some bacteria require oxygen to survive, others, however, can live without contact with the air in no time, and in certain cases can die if exposed to oxygen. The latter are called anaerobes and for air, perform a complex process known as anaerobic respiration.
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There are also other ways to classify bacteria, for example according Its growth patterns and to multiply as in the case of chains formed by streptococci. All bacteria multiply by division, the simplest form of reproduction in nature observed that explains the huge amount of existing bacteria.
The bacteria usually have a cell wall and one or more flagella, which use to get around around. This walking ability is a major benefit, as they can move to more favorable areas for growth where the conditions or the availability of food are better.
On our planet; in our work; in our home; in our bed and even within us, there is an unimaginable number of bacteria in many different shapes, sizes, colors, behaviors and characteristics. The differences between these features allows the bacteria can survive in almost all sorts of places, from the simplest to the most extreme.
Are the true dominant species on the planet and its characteristics make them be amazing. Take a look at this video that shows how things would be if we could see the bacteria with the naked eye.
The study of all these characteristics of the bacteria is in charge of bacteriology, microbiology one of the areas.